James Rest (1982) built on Kohlberg’s work by developing a four-component model of the ethical decision-making process which describes the cognitive processes individuals (as cited in Bebeau 2002). The writer used many convincing and logical sentence in his article. The purpose of auditor safeguards to independence is to reduce the threats that may impair the auditor’s opinion forming process. This stage reflect the highest order of ethical development. (1999) stated the principal threat factors to independence relate to economic dependence and non-audit service provision. . He reiterates that managers ought to have a sober responsibility and obligation beyond the interests of employers or shareholders. (APB, 1996). Safeguards are identified and classified by the Financial Reporting Council, the Mauritius Institute of Professional Accountants and the National Committee on Corporate Governance to strengthen auditor independence. Financial dependence introduces incentives that threaten the auditor's ability to resist management pressure, out of concern that a financial relationship will be terminated (Johnstone, K.M., M.H. A lot of issues were identified, thus why this literature review is spread into two dynamics outlining the threats of auditor independence and highlighting the solutions. Literature Review: The Threats Of Auditor Independence 1590 Words7 Pages Auditor independence has come into discussion over the decade for numerous reasons. Employees who are charged with such procеdures are expected to perform their duties in line with such regulations (Fan et al. Gupta (1999) and Okolie (2007) also agree that one of the most effective safeguards is the rotation of auditors. Auditor Independence Auditors provide independent third-party opinion on the financial statements of a company. Many Organization have faced or will face the decision to downsizing their work force. 204-231) and Berryman (1974, p. 1) say that since independent auditors occupy a position of trust between the management of the reporting entity and users of its financial statements, they must be perceived to be operating independently on the basis of sound auditing standards and strong ethical principles. This hinders the auditor from making independent evaluations and conclusions. Stakeholders and regulators due to their concerns for the audit quality have criticized the auditing profession. The Customer Relationship Management concepts are all about gaining trust of the customer, so that the transection can be converted into relationship. Safeguarding independence is a key component requirement of the regulatory framework which supports capital markets. D , 2006) Also states that Professional scepticism. Part 2: The impact of both auditor independence and audit risk on the main elements related to an audit work; audit quality, audit failure, earning management and the audit process, to ensure confidence for the public interest. As expressed by Bartlett, (1993) audit independence refers to an unbiased mental attitude in making decisions throughout the audit and financial reporting that without independence, audit has no value (Power, 1997), as the result, auditor should maintain independent and exists to professional ethics, but current audit environment changing very rapidly, increased many force on the audit independence. If accounting is the language of business it is the auditor’s job to see the language is used properly so that relevant material is communicated properly, (Duska R, 2005). quality control and documentation, identification of threats, availability of consultation procedures, internal reviews by independent partners, division of responsibilities, training, staff development, ethical standards, etc. Potential Independence Threats. -To highlight the importance of auditor independence and how it is fundamental to public confidence in the audit process. Moizer (1997) identifies two types of ethical reasoning: consequentialism, whereby actions are judged in terms of their consequences (to self or others); and. That is the individual places self-interest well above the common interests of society and is sensitive to penalty attributes. ICAEW believes that: 1. The above literature review signifies the importance of customer relationship management in modern generation. Image restoration 4 [The capital they invest] is providing the fuel for our economic engine, funding for the growth of new businesses . However, the quality of an auditor’s judgment is also influenced by pressures emanating from the firm itself. Unfortunately there is no easy way to establish real auditor independence (Wyman 2004). The link between auditor independence and audit risk is closely linked. Theses occur when the auditor possesses a personal, family, or professional relationship with the client. -To reflect how risk and independence are linked. Objectivity is sometimes described as independence of mind (Dunlea, A. The reliability and validity of an opinion rely on the independence of the auditor. This thеory is a setback in business procurеment as it еncourages selfishness that can culminate to corruption and financial losses to the businеss (Clerke T.E., 2008). 2001. Specifically, it sets out the overall objectives of the independent auditor, and explains the nature and scope of an audit designed to enable the independent auditor to meet those objectives. 2001. Threats to Independence Competition [11] has been identified as an external factor affecting auditor independence (Shockley 1981). An audit is basically an examination of a set of records, both financial and non financial, to ensure that they can be relied upon in terms of accuracy and completeness. When organization decided layoff. For us, however, the optimal legal regulation of auditor independence requires a more textured Here there is the risk of losing the client. Auditor’s independence refers to an independent working style of the auditor being unbiased, unfettered, uninfluenced, and being fully objective in performing audit responsibilities.. Independence Standards Board (ISB) 2000 states that auditor independence is the ‘freedom from those pressures and other factors that compromise, or can reasonably be expected to compromise, an auditors’ ability to make unbiased audit decisions’. The issue of auditor’s independence has always been an important public concern and a matter of many debates, especially because of the fiduciary role played by the auditors in modern society. independence of the internal audit function and objectivity of internal auditors is discussed. Three are different threats that occasion impairment on auditor’s objectivity such as the self-interest threats that include financial and personal interests (Basu, 2009). Auditor independence may be affected by threats and intimidation posed to the auditor by either the client or any stakeholders in the audit process. The results show that: 1. The fulfillment of these obligations goes hand in hand with the. Introduction 2 2000). But have regulatory framework and education been able to instill complete independent (both in fact and in appearance) in the work of auditor? Another threat to auditor independence is self-interest. However, Peter Wyman ("Is Auditor Independence Really the Solution?," April 2004) makes an important contribution to this discussion, about being full independent by emphasizing that auditor independence is an enabler of good auditing, and that to view it as an end in itself could have severe adverse consequences. A recent report from the Institute of Internal Auditors – The Politics of Internal Auditing– reveals that internal audits are typically fraught with tension and that many auditors are working under inappropriate pressure. Threat to auditor independence is the risk that set limits on the auditor preventing him from acting fully with professional behavior. M & Clark. Thus, the provision of auditing and non-auditing services to the audit client would generate potential and real threat to audit independence. He states that attracting and retaining high-quality people to the auditing profession is vital. But in order for that report to have credibility with investors, to add value to the process and investors, it must be issued by a person or firm that the investor perceives is free of all conflict- conflicts that may or will in part weight on or impair the auditor’s judgments about the accuracy of the numbers" (pp. People are taught the professional behavior; integrity, objectivity and independence. Impression management 5-6 Auditors find themselves under greater pressure when issues come up at last minute and that there is no time to research matter properly. For example, settings in which there might be a high degree of judgment include deciding on the appropriateness of a client’s revenue recognition policy or judging the adequacy of a client’s allowance for doubtful accounts. . Auditors play an important role in the capital markets. Here the auditor reviews a judgement she has taken herself. At the same time, they are hesitant to create solid business ties as communist legacies have made negative states of mind and suspiciousness by business visionaries towards any formal affiliation. The answer is a resounding 'yes'. These pressures can arise from immediate supervisors on the audit team or the overall evaluation process used by the firm. Public relations practitioners are known to be a very essential. In Mauritius, scarce literature is available on the perception of the threats that impair auditor independence and safeguarding it. A study by the Society for Human Resource Management that was conducted in 2004 shows that 58 percent of human resource professionals have confirmed the conflict between employees as a result of generational differences (Westerman & Yamamura, 2007). An individual’s attitude toward sanctions, which varies across individuals, may affect judgments when sanctions are present. It must be noted that even thought we make a distinction between the two types of auditor independence (in fact and in appearance), when considering the threats and safeguards to auditor independence these two components are not considered separately. Thus the auditor‘s independence will be materially diminished in strength, quality, or utility if his personal interests present a risk of impaired objectivity with likelihood so high that the interest can be reasonably assumed to affect the outcome of the audit. International Financial Reporting Standards. It is the report of the independent auditor that provides investors with the critical assurance that the numbers in the financial statements have been subjected to an impartial, unbiased and rigorous examination by a skilled professional. Beattie, V. et al. This objective is to improve life by setting up intermediaries to make exchange more efficient, (Duska R, 2005). Be that as it may, business visionaries don't esteem their participation in a formal relationship on the premise of a common vision (Miller, Besser, and Malshe, 2007). Kohlberg’s CMD model distinguishes three part of an individual’s ethical development to examine an auditor’s implicit reasoning in the resolution of an independence conflict, which he described as, – the pre-conventional level: an individual’s ethical decisions are shaped by external authorities, self interest, and the rewards and punishment associated with various choice outcomes. This essay is concerned with the pros and cons of auditor independence and describes the way to the current audit regulation. The aim of this study is to provide data viewed from a local perspective by taking into account the Mauritian’s framework, as well as institutions, which provides the training to equip people with the required professional and ethical conducts required as an auditor, so as to safeguard auditor independence. Public trust begins, and ends, with the integrity of the numbers the public uses to form the basis for making their investment decisions. . Thus companies give importance to customer and try to build long term relationship so that every customer will add revenue to the organization. Finally, research also finds auditors’ perceived goals of the audit (Sweeney and McGarry 2011) and perceptions of how the audit firm values them (Herrbach 2001) influences auditors’ judgments. 1998; Jenkins and Haynes 2003; Kadous et al. Intimidation threat is one of five independence threats that are explicitly referenced in the IFAC’s independence framework. But in one way or the other auditor independence is threatened. It is argued that poor outcomes arise where the safeguards are insufficient defence against the threats thus increasing independence risk and also incentives also influence an auditor. Auditors have the main aim to assure the trust of the public. This suggests that an auditor at pre-conventional and conventional level will display a lower propensity of not complying with standards when it is likely that violation will be detected and the sanctions will be imposed. The literature shows that there are several situations that can potentially threaten auditor independence. In this industry; business ethics and standards normally differ in relation to the environment and time the services are being offered (Joseph Weiss, 2008, Pg, 78).This creates about of challenges the mangers have to deal with to keep in line with the required ethical principles as they try to make profit. Threat to auditor independence is the risk that set limits on the auditor preventing him from acting fully with professional behavior. According to Okolie (2007), "audit independence equates the term with an attitude and approach of objectivity (being unbiased, fair and impartial) and integrity (being intellectually honest". An auditor is a qualified person who carries out the audit assignment and reports on the ‘true and fair view’ of the client entity’s financial statements so that the users of financial statements can rely on the reliability and credibility of the financial statements. D , 2006) Meaning that the conflict arises as auditors are hired and paid by the companies they audit which was stressed in (Mautz R.K, 1961), similarly (Mayhew & Pike, 2004) views this as a conflict of interest which is a threat. Before an audit engagement, it is crucial that each member of the audit team review the five threats to independence. The effectiveness of penalties depends on both the individual and the situation. If users of financial statements are to believe and rely on the auditor’s opinion, it is essential that the auditor is, and is perceived to be, independent of the entity and its management. The report classifies this as political pressure, something that the authors describe as 'extensive and pe… Sutton and T.D. The independence of these auditors must be safeguarded during each engagement. Client's fees to auditors that are contingent upon specific opinions can, if allowed to occur, result in the auditor's financial interests becoming dependent upon whether audit judgments coincide with management's preferences. For example, audit managers held accountable to a partner who aggressively tries to grow the firm’s business are more likely to support bidding on a client who engages in aggressive accounting practices (Cohen and Trompeter 1998). What is Auditor Independence? [But] the willingness of investors to continue to invest … cannot be taken for granted. Accountants’ Moral Reasoning Though research into accountants’ moral development is still growing (Gaa, 1992). Many would disagree and argue that it is a partial view of human nature. There is familiarity threat if the auditor has a close relationship to or too familiar … Concerns are shown towards both the competence (discovering a problem or making a correct judgment) and the independence (disclosure of the problem by the auditor) of the accounting firm (Duff, 2004). and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Kant believeе that when such rules are adhered to, no malpractice is bound to occur. Its popularity as a 'solution' has risen in recent years due in part to its perceived value in addressing audit market concentration. Ghandar says the vast majority of independence breaches are related to self-review threats. The editor specifies five major threats which could jeopardise auditor independence. When he stated that from the negative effects of passive procrastination is stress, anxiety and not doing your task in your full ability with disorganization. While a lion's share of the studies recognized both financial and social thought processes of entrepreneurial systems administration (Jack, 2005; Lockett et al., 2013; Shaw, 2006), high managerial boundaries and need of assets constrained business people to shape business systems with those gatherings with whom they can increase direct financial advantages. However, there are several countervailing incentives in place, such as concerns for regulatory enforcement, potential litigation costs, and potential reputation losses, promoting high audit quality (e.g., Nelson 2009). Although the author tries to states some convincing facts about procrastination but he stated many false assumptions, week evidence and logical fallacies which weaken his article. Ethical Rules), one’s level of moral development is measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT) with the P score measuring one’s propensity to reason at the post-conventional stage. It encompasses all threats to and organization’s goals and objectives. Threats to Independence The threats to audit independence arises from the following sources : Self-interest threats occur when the financial interest of the auditor and his relatives are involved. The existence of a penalty is more likely to affect the decision to increase the likelihood to behave ethically than unethically (whether the choice is ‘ideal’ or ‘actual’). Mauritius Financial Reporting Act 2004 states: "independence of mind" means the state of mind that permits the provision of an opinion without being affected by influences that compromise professional judgment, allowing an individual to act with integrity, and exercise objectivity and professional skepticism; "independence in appearance" means the avoidance of facts and circumstances that are so significant that a reasonable and informed third party, having knowledge of all relevant information, including any safeguards applied, will reasonably conclude that the integrity, objectivity or professional skepticism of a firm or a member of the audit team had been compromised, Independence is a key concept-a characteristic that is essential for ensuring the credibility of audit work. Auditor independence has long been regarded as a cornerstone of the auditing profession (AICPA 1999; SEC 2000). Judgment-based decisions are those in which there is uncertainty regarding the appropriate decision or valuation judgment that an auditor should make. While auditor at post-conventional level judgment will not be affected by nature or severity of sanction. I have chosen to concentrate on how the provision of non-audit poses a threat to auditors' independence, (Online). AUDITOR INDEPENDENCE Audit is the process of evaluating a set of financial ments, processes, systems to comment on the vera and authenti of the same, that the books of accounts represent a true and fair view of state of affairs an enterprise. "At the heart of the audit profession is a belief about human nature. -To determine the extent to which Mauritius framework protect auditors’ independence. . A critical element is the quality of the audit, and auditor independence is one of a number of important blocks on which that quality is built. Ethical decisions are affected by the decision maker’s level of moral development, awareness of relevant professional standards, and contextuality, defined as the interaction between issue characteristics and person characteristics (Wright, Cullinan, & Bline, 1997). These results suggest that while external review and potential penalties (litigation costs, loss of reputation, directness or license suspension) may reduce violations of auditor independence somewhat, the positive reinforcement of the attribute may come from increasing independent auditors’ awareness of the ethical dimensions of their decisions. Familiarity Threat. (Arnold and Ponemon, 1991). However, if all the auditors were truly independent the subject would not find such a prominent place in the code of conduct of every professional institute of the world. Pany and Whittinton (1997), Gupta(1999), ICAN (1999), ISB (2000), (Myring and Bloom, 2003), Aquaisua (2004) and Okolie (2007) identify some of these threats which include undue dependence on a client; overdue fees; actions or threatened litigations; family or other personal relationships; beneficial interesting shares and other investments; beneficial interests in trusts, loans, voting on audit appointments; acceptance of goods and services as gifts or hospitality; and provision of other services to audit clients. (Falk H, Lynn B, Mestelman S, Shehata M, 1999) Having complete auditor independence is difficult as the way the environment is, 523 to the judgment that financial statements are dependable. Despite the increasing amount of attention paid to Supply Chain Management(SCM) by many companies across the globe, failures in effectively implementing SCM practices still exist. A blanket prohibition o… Based on individual’s ethical development which influences judgment and work, Kohlberg (1958) defined ethical development as the ‘Cognitive Moral Development’ (CMD) of the individual, governing the thought and knowledge processes involved in deciding about what is right or wrong. 2003; Blay 2005). Reference 7 Or an audit firm prepared the financial statements and then acted as auditor. Experimental research has documented that auditor judgments can be impacted by incentives which, in turn, can negatively or positively influence the quality of the audit process. Essay on Auditor Independence - 2 Introduction Independence is a fundamental to the reliability of auditors’ reports. Here the individual develops the courage to follow through with his/her moral action. The customer relationship management in modern generation will be forever debatable as there several! 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