Vitamins and minerals are essential com- ponents of the diet because the body cannot synthesize most of the vitamins and minerals it requires. What process in the liver increases after you have eaten a high-carbohydrate meal? formation of glucose from non carb source. Explain how the electron trans- port system is involved in this process. In IMMEDIATE RESPONSE, what enters the cells using the hormones insulin and gh? Why are high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered beneficial to health? What 4 hormones are used during KETOGENESIS? A diet deficient in pyridoxine (vitamin B6), an important coenzyme in de- aminating and transaminating amino acids in cells, would interfere with the body's ability to metabolize proteins. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are considered ben- eficial to health because they reduce the amount of fat (including cholesterol) in the bloodstream by transporting it to the liver for storage or excretion in the bile. However, an intermediary in the mitochondrial membrane can transfer the electrons from the NADH to a coenzyme within the mitochondria. Key Terms. (a) fasting, (b) postabsorptive, (c) absorptive, (d) stress, (e) bulimic. C. lipids are stored in adipose tissue. Question options: What 4 hormones are used during GLUCONEOGENESIS? The Postabsorptive State. In GLUCONEOGENESIS, glucose is made from what? If both are present in relatively high amounts, then the excess of insulin promotes the glucose conversion into glycogen for storage in the liver and muscle cells. In IMMEDIATE RESPONSE, amino acids enter the cells using what 2 hormones? All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state except that A) glycogenolysis occurs in the liver. Charlie has a blood test that shows a normal level of lDls but an elevated level of HDls in his blood. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, whereas the digestion of proteins and fats begins in the stomach and small inte… In GLUCONEOGENESIS, glucose is formed from what? The largest metabolic reserves for the average adult are stored as. A decrease in the amount of bile salts, which are necessary for digesting and absorbing fats and fat-soluble vitamins (including vitamin A), would result in less vitamin A in the body, and perhaps a vitamin A deficiency. ... what characterized the postabsorptive state. The 2-carbon compounds then enter the citric acid cycle. b. brain. An absorptive state occurs during the period within four hours of food consumption. state except. The process that produces more than 90 percent of the ATP used by our cells is (a) glycolysis, (b) the citric acid cycle, (c) substrate-level phosphorylation, (d) oxidative phosphorylation. The different intermediaries account for the difference in ATP yield. B) levels of blood glucose are elevated above normal. Absorptive state occurs when blood glucose concentraion: What 4 hormones are used in absorptive state feedback mechanism: In IMMEDIATE RESPONSE, what enters the cells using the hormones insulin and thyroxine? What 2 hormones are used during GLYCOGENOLYSIS? These terms refer to lipo- proteins in the blood that transport cholesterol. Learning Objective: 27.03.02 Explain when the postabsorptive state occurs, and how nutrient levels are regulated during this time. B) growth hormone. Unlike some other vitamins that can be made by our skin (vitamin D3) or by intestinal bacteria (vitamin K, Biotin [B7], Pantothenic acid [B5]), vitamin A is a true essential vitamin that must be consumed orally. What happens to glucose during the Postabsorptive state quizlet? Postabsorptive State: Resting after absorption of meal. Section: 27.03b Topic: Nutrition and Metabolism 27-Glucagon 62. D) fat mobilization occurs. E) gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver. One of the ketones formed is acetone, which can be eliminated through the lungs. The absorptive state, or the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients (catabolism exceeds anabolism). during postabsorptive state, glucagon __ blood energy sources by __ both glucose & fatty acid levels restores; enhancing during postabsorptive state, certain hormonal controls combined with persistent low glucose levels or prolonged fasting, most fat that is mobilized is there is a substantial reduction in blood glucose concentration compared to the absorptive state. During this state, the body must rely initially on stored glycogen. Liver cells can break down or synthesize most carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. What is the primary role of the citric acid cycle in the production of ATP. formation of ketone acids from breakdown of fat. and made into what? cortisol. How would the BMR of a pregnant woman compare with her own BMR before she became pregnant? Decreased NAD would reduce the amount of pyruvate produced by glycolysis; less pyruvate means that the citric acid cycle could produce less, Beta-oxidation is fatty acid catabolism that produces molecules of acetyl-CoA, Identify the five major groups of lipoproteins. This is probably the cause of her arrhythmias. What 5 hormones are used during LIPOLYSIS? In LIPOLYSIS, what are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids and made into glucose? gluconeogensis is stimulated by. Why? How would a diet that is deficient in pyridoxine (vitamin B6) affect protein metabolism? glucagon epinephrine glucocorticoids gh thyroxine, stimulates breakdown of glycogen into glucose. In PROTEIN SYNTHESIS amino acids are turned into what? One afternoon she is rushed to the emergency room because of cardiac arrhythmias. Why are vitamins and minerals essential components of the diet? A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is _____. During the absorptive state of metabolism, amino acids. Catabolism refers to (a) the creation of a nutrient pool, (b) the sum total of all chemical reactions in the body, (c) the production of or- ganic compounds, (d) the breakdown of organic substrates. In large amounts, this lowers the body's pH. The flactuations of glucose and insulin in human during the course of a day: The fluctuation of blood sugar (red) and the sugar-lowering hormone insulin (blue) in humans during the course of a day with three meals. The buildup of cholesterol in the arteries is linked to cardiovascular disease. Glycogen is formed in the liver during the absorptive state. For several hours during and after a meal Digestion begins the moment you put food into your mouth, as the food is broken down into its constituent parts to be absorbed through the intestine. Through a series of processes, glucose is ultimately released into the bloodstream by the liver in order to maintain normal blood … elevates glucagon levels. a. lipogenesis b. to store excess glucose by glycogenesis c. to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis d. glycolysis e. … b. brain. The Postabsorptive State. The breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is an ___________ process. A post-absorptive state differs from an absorptive state. To which types and functions of cholesterol do these terms refer? ... All of the following complement the actions of glucocorticoids in the postabsorptive . How is beta-oxidation in- volved in lipid catabolism? In addition to breaking down glycogen (glycogenolysis), the liver can convert other substrates, such as amino acids, into glucose (gluconeogenesis). In PA state, chemoreceptors detect a(n) increase/decrease in glucose or amino acid concentration in the blood? Meanwhile, the postabsorptive state starts after the complete absorption of nutrients. Blood levels of urea increase during the postabsorptive state because the deamination of many amino acids at that time yields ammonium ions, which are then converted to urea by the liver. gluconeogenesis is stimulated by decreased levels of. Her breath smells fruity, and her blood and urine samples contain high levels of ketone bodies. As a result, infants must expend more energy to maintain body temperature, and they get cold more easily than do healthy adults. An athlete who is adding muscle mass through extensive training would try to maintain a positive nitrogen balance. The liver also stores energy in the form of glycogen. Explain the processes that regulate glucose levels during the absorptive and postabsorptive states; Explain how metabolism is essential to maintaining body temperature (thermoregulation) Summarize the importance of vitamins and minerals in the diet d. spleen. Explain the processes that regulate glucose levels during the absorptive and postabsorptive states; Explain how metabolism is essential to maintaining body temperature (thermoregulation) Summarize the importance of vitamins and minerals in the diet; Figure 1. It appears that Jill is suffering from ketoaci- dosis as a consequence of her anorexia. Some articles in the popular media refer to "good cholesterol" and "bad cholesterol." 2. What is oxidative phosphorylation? breaks down complex structures to simpler ones. In KETOGENESIS, what is formed from the breakdown of fat? How are lipids catabolized in the body? What hormones are used to turn amino acids into proteins? What hormone is used to turn glucose into glycogen? During the postabsorptive state A. blood glucose rises. If a cell accumulates more acetyl-CoA than it can metabolize in the citric acid cycle, what products are likely to form? Oxidative phosphorylation is the generation of ATP within mi- tochondria, through a process called chemiosmosis that requires coenzymes, ATP synthase, and consumes oxygen. What would you tell him? What are the major groups of lipoproteins, and how do they differ? During the postabsorptive state tissues other than the brain utilize fatty acids for energy, and the liver produces glucose by breaking down glycogen to glucose and converting other substrates to glucose via gluconeogenesis. 16. Fatty acids are broken into 2-carbon fragments by beta-oxidation inside mito- chondria. The vitamins generally associated with vitamin toxicity are (a) fat-soluble vitamins, (b) water-soluble vitamins. D. glucose is stored by glycogenesis. In KETOGENESIS ketone acids are formed from the breakdown of what? Glycerol is converted to pyruvate and enters the citric acid cycle. 17. Anabolism is the synthesis of new organic molecules from simpler components, and it requires energy. B. glycerol is used for gluconeogenesis. High levels of HDLs indicate that a considerable amount of cholesterol is being removed from the peripheral tissues and carried to the liver for disposal. How would a decrease in the amount of bile salts in the bile affect the amount of vitamin A in the body? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Start studying Chapter 25: Absorptive and Postabsorptive States. a. liver. What hormone is used to turn glucose into fat? Metabolism is the sum of all energy-requiring and energy-consuming processes of the body. to mobilize glucose reserves by glycogenolysis The hormone that controls essentially all events of the absorptive state is __________. C) insulin. The primary role of the citric acid cycle in ATP production is to transfer electrons from substrates to coenzymes. Catabolism is the breakdown of organic molecules into simpler components, accompanied by the release of en-. Accumulated acetyl-CoA is likely to be converted into ketone bodies. A) glucocorticoids. Deamination is the removal of an amino group from an amino acid. In the end result of the absorptive state: What state occurs when plasma glucose concentration is decreased? B) androgens. THE ABSORPTIVE AND POST-ABSORPTIVE STATES Chapter objectives After studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. As a result, body temperature would increase. Acetone has a fruity aroma, so her breath would also smell fruity. In GLYCOGENOLYSIS what breaks down into glucose? Chemoreceptors send nerve impluse to where (4): pancreas adrenal glad pituitary gland peripheral nerves, The pancreas, adrenal glad, pituitary gland and peripheral nerves send hormones to what organs?(3). Other than diet and vitamin supplementation, is there any other available source of vitamin A? D. C) glucagon. In GLYCOGENOLYSIS gycogen breaks down into what? Part D Metabolism During the Absorptive State During the absorptive state, metabolism adjusts to either provide energy for immediate use or store excess energy to be used later Drag the appropriate items into their respective bins. Do the absorptive state pathways occur separately or all at once? In order to maintain a normal blood glucose level, nutrients that were stored during the absorptive state and now being broken down during the postabsorptive state. E. protein synthesis is active. During the absorptive state, insulin prevents a large surge in blood glucose after a meal by causing the liver to remove glucose from the hepatic portal circulation. The plasma glucose concentration is maintained surprisingly constant during the fasting, or postabsorptive, state because of the secretion of glucose from the liver. B. arteriole. One of the effects of a sugar-rich vs a starch-rich meal is highlighted. In skeletal muscle cells, the intermediary transfers the electrons to FAD, whereas cardiac muscle cells use a different intermediary, which transfers the electrons to another NAD. The hydrogen ions diffuse back through ATP synthase and generate ATP. During the postabsorptive state, blood glucose begins to decline, triggering the liver to release glu- cose produced through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. In mi- tochondria, each NADH yields 3 molecules of ATP, whereas each FADH2 yields just 2 molecules of ATP. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Justine's vitamin-deficient diet is likely to lead to deficiencies of all the fat-soluble and water-soluble vita- mins, including D, E, K, all the B vitamins, and vitamin C. The end result of PA state, the plasma glucose increases/decreases? Glucose levels in the blood begin to drop as it is absorbed and used by the cells. These nutrients are used to meet the immediate energy needs of the body. be in good health, at least relative to his diet and prob- able exercise. Print chapter 25 flashcards and study them anytime, anywhere. C) ketone bodies may be formed. Postabsorptive state Energy may be provided by mechanisms such as the breakdown of a stored glycogen, oxidation of ketone bodies, and conversion of glycerol into glucose...during which state? Start studying Absorptive/Post-Absorptive State. During this state, our body uses energy stored in the endogenous energy reserves. The electrons, hydrogen ions, and oxygen com- bine to produce water as a byproduct. In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ____ are converted to glucose. During the postabsorptive state, blood glucose begins to decline, triggering the liver to release glu- cose produced through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. If Justine's diet—which includes very little milk, liver, eggs, fish, leafy green, yellow, and orange vegetables, and fruits—is deficient in vitamin A, what other vitamin deficiencies might be expected? When blood levels of glucose, amino acids, and insulin are high, and glycogenesis is occurring in the liver, the body is in the _____ state. The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. Diet and vitamin supplementation are the only known sources of vitamin A. in PROTEIN SYNTHESIS what is made into proteins? The NADH produced by glycolysis cannot enter the mi- tochondria, where the enzymes of the electron transport chain are located. A) cortisol B) insulin C) glucagon D) epinephrine E) thyroid hormone As the body progresses from the absorptive to the post absorptive state, only ___ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids. Glycogenolysis, Lipolysis, Gluconeogenesis, Ketogenesis. Why do you think she is having the arrhythmias? causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies. The end result of what absorptive state includes: When do formation of keto-acids and breakdown of proteins occur. Glycogen formation is called glycogenesis, which takes place depending on the demand for glucose and ATP. Your first task is to apply the mass balance equation to the maintenance of the glucose pool during the absorptive and postabsorptive states. Why is the liver the focal point for metabolic regulation and control? A) insulin. This forms a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. In lipid catabolism, a triglyceride is hydrolyzed, yielding glycerol and fatty acids. The ketones are also converted into keto acids such as acetic acid. The sequence of reactions responsible for the breakdown of fatty acid molecules is (a) beta-oxidation, (b) the citric acid cycle, (c) lipogen- esis, (d) all of these. C. vein. During the postabsorptive state, _____ stimulate(s) lipid catabolism. At the middle of a liver lobule is a central: A. artery. Glycogenesis (the formation of glycogen) in the liver increases after a high-carbohydrate meal. The citric acid cycle must turn ___________ time(s) to completely me- tabolize the pyruvate produced from one glucose molecule. Infants have higher surface-to-volume ratios than do adults, and the body's temperature-regulating mechanisms are not fully functional at birth. You commonly fast overnight, but skipping meals during the day puts your body in the postabsorptive state as well. Metabolism is the sum of all biochemical processes under way within the human body; it includes anabolism and ca- tabolism. A decrease in cytosolic NAD would reduce ATP production in mitochondria. Energy from the stepwise passage of electrons (from H atoms) along the cytochrome molecules is used to pump hydrogen ions from the matrix into the intermembrane space. You commonly fast overnight, but skipping meals during the day puts your body in the postabsorptive state as well. The two classes of vitamins are fat-soluble and water-soluble. During the absorptive state, the stomach and intestines contain nutrients that are being absorbed by the body. During this state, the body must rely initially on stored glycogen. The major groups are chylomicrons, which consist of 95 percent triglyceride, are the largest lipoproteins, and carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the blood- stream; very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), which consist of triglyceride, phospholipid, and cholesterol, and transport triglycer- ides to peripheral tissues; intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), which are intermediate in size and composition between VLDLs and LDLs; low-density lipoproteins (LDLs, or "bad cholesterol"), which are mostly cholesterol and deliver cholesterol to peripheral tissues; and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs, or "good choles- terol"), which are equal parts protein and lipid (cholesterol and phospholipids) and transport excess cholesterol to the liver for stor- age or excretion in bile. Understand how nutrients are utilized during the absorptive state to provide energy, and how energy is provided when nutrients are not being absorbed. c. pancreas. The end result of PA state, the lipids are broken down to form _____________ __________ to make ______________. The BMR of a pregnant woman would be higher than her own BMR when she is not pregnant, due to both the increased metabolism associated with supporting the fetus and the contribution of fetal metabolism. During"the"beginning"of"the"postTabsorptive"state,"skeletal+muscle"obtains" some"of"its"energyfromusingits"stored"glycogen,"undergoing"glycogenolysis" ... Microsoft Word - Absorptive and Postabsorptive States in a Nutshell-for Distribution-Final.docx Created Date: The five major groups of lipoproteins are chylomicrons, very low density lipoproteins (VLDLs), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Transamination is the transfer of an amino group from one molecule to another, especially from an amino acid to a keto acid. How would a decrease in the level of NAD in the cytosol affect ATP production in mitochondria? In IMMEDIATE RESPONSE, glucose enter the cells using what 2 hormones? absorptive state: The period during digestion when anabolism exceeds catabolism. Given that his family has a history of cardiovascular disease, he wonders if he should modify his lifestyle. What feedback mechanism is used during post absorptive state? "Good cholesterol" (high-density lipoproteins, or HDLs) transports excess cholesterol to the liver for storage or breakdown, whereas "bad cholesterol" (low- density lipoproteins, or LDLs) transports cholesterol to peripheral tissues, which unfortunately may include the arteries. Formation of glycogen from glucose is called: Glucose turns into_______ during lipogenesis. 9. How do the absorptive and postabsorptive states maintain normal blood glucose levels? Because she is literally starv- ing herself, her body is metabolizing large amounts of fatty acids and amino acids to provide energy, and in the process is producing large quantities of ketone bodies (normal metabolites from these catabolic processes). Immediate response, Glucogenesis, Lipogenesis, Protein synthesis. Jill suffers from anorexia nervosa. During the absorptive state, insulin prevents a large surge in blood glucose after a meal by causing the liver to remove glucose from the hepatic portal circulation. What effect does peripheral vasoconstriction on a hot day have on an individual's body temperature? What 5 hormones are used to maintain homeostatis in PA state? In GLUCONEOGENESIS, what is formed from a non carb source? Problems are associated with elevated levels of LDLs, which carry cholesterol to peripheral tissues and make it available for the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in blood vessels. Consider how the absorptive and post-absorptive patterns of metabolism are controlled by hormones,… builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state. In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as _____ in the oxidative state. Explain your answer. The vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels would decrease blood flow to the skin and thus the amount of heat the body can lose. During this state, digestion of food and absorption of nutrients into blood take place. These electrons provide energy for the production of ATP by the electron transport system. The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. Glucose is made into __________ during glycogenesis, In GLYCOGENESIS what is made into glycogen. Why do infants have greater problems with thermoregulation than adults? You would encourage Charlie not to change, and keep up the good work. A function of the liver during the postabsorptive state is _____. ; Kreb’s cycle: The Kreb’s cycle is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to generate energy through the oxidization of acetate derived from carbohydrates, fats and proteins into carbon dioxide. The electron transport system consists of a sequence of metal ion-containing proteins (metalloproteins) called cytochromes, embedded in the in- ner mitochondrial membrane. Because the liver has an extensive blood supply, it can easily monitor blood composition of these nutrients and regulate them accordingly. Each NADH produced by glycolysis in skeletal muscle fibers leads to the production of 2 ATP molecules in the mitochondria, but each NADH produced by glycolysis in cardiac muscle cells leads to the production of 3 ATP molecules. Thus, this is the key difference between absorptive and postabsorptive state. During the postabsorptive state, the digestive tract is empty and energy comes from the breakdown of the body's reserves. Lipoproteins are lipid-protein complexes that contain large insoluble glycerides and cholesterol, with a superficial coating of phospholipids and proteins. breaks down complex structures to simpler ones. Why do blood levels of urea increase during the post absorptive state? Would an athlete in intensive training try to maintain a. In LIPOLYSIS, lipids are broken down into what? What is a lipoprotein? In GLUCONEOGENESIS, glycerol, amino acids, lactic acids are made into what? Problems with thermoregulation than adults state: the period during digestion when anabolism exceeds catabolism glycogenolysis the that... Energy to maintain a within four hours of food consumption healthy adults temperature! Production in mitochondria this is the breakdown of proteins occur consequence of her anorexia is to... 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