On his return to Sweden, Gustav III tried unsuccessfully to mediate between the bitterly divided parties. [21], The King twitched and said “ai” without falling. In 1777, Gustav III was the first formally neutral head of state in the world to recognize the United States[3] during its war for independence from Great Britain. [1] Gustav had arrived earlier that evening to enjoy a dinner in the company of friends. Anckarström was arrested the following morning and immediately confessed to the murder, although he denied a conspiracy until informed that Horn and Ribbing had also been arrested and had confessed in full.[20]. Only eight months before, Catherine had declared that "the odious and revolting aggression" of the king of Sweden would be "forgiven" only if he "testified his repentance" by agreeing to a peace granting a general and unlimited amnesty to all his rebels and consenting to a guarantee by the Swedish Riksdag for the observance of peace in the future ("as it would be imprudent to confide in his good faith alone"). Due to the crowd, Pollet receded behind the King, who bent backwards to talk to Pollet. Enlightened absolutism (also called enlightened despotism or enlightened absolutist) refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and early 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, espousing them to enhance their power. Many of these monarchs read Enlightenment works and were intrigued by the new ideas thinkers put forth. He was educated by Carl Gustav Tessin and Karl Scheffer, two of Sweden's more eminent statesmen, and by … Assign a role to the hostess, Madame Geoffrin. A conspiracy to have the king assassinated and reform the constitution was created within the nobility in the winter of 1791–92. The dilapidated finances were set in good order by the "currency realization ordinance" of 1776. Returning to Sweden, Gustav aroused popular indignation against the mutinous aristocratic officers. Gustav was also active as a playwright. He told the assembled officers. Taking advantage of Russia’s war with Turkey, he declared war on Russia in 1788, but treasonous activity by the Anjala League, a group of Swedish officers on the Finnish front, along with Denmark’s entry into the war on the side of Russia, worsened his situation. Gustav III's war against Russia and his implementation of the Union and Security Act of 1789 helped increase hatred against the king which had been growing among the nobility ever since the coup d'état of 1772. Gustav III was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. When the British were preparing to establish a colony in Botany Bay, the Government of Gustav III agreed to sponsor William Bolts' proposal for an equivalent venture in Nuyts Land (the south-western coast of Australia). On the evening of 20 August, heralds roamed the streets proclaiming that the estates were to meet at the palace on the following day; every deputy absenting himself would be regarded as the enemy of his country and his king. The structure of the salon should be a seminar/discussion. He seized control of the kingdom through a coup in 1772, and his 1789 ‘Union and Security Act’ took away the rest of the powers of the Swedish parliament. On 21 August, the king appeared in full regalia. King Gustav was especially fond of him and suffered obvious and severe mental and physical reactions to the baby's illness and death. 13 January] 1746 – 29 March 1792)note on dates[1] was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. [1] He was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt until the age of five, then educated under the care of two governors who were among the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day: Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer. He was not a great general like Frederick II of Prussia or a great empire-builder like Catherine II of Russia, nor did he labour tirelessly to rationalise the administration of a conglomeration of disparate principalities like Joseph II of Austria. An admirer of Voltaire, Gustav legalized Catholic and Jewish presence in Sweden, and enacted wide-ranging reforms aimed at economic liberalism, social reform and the restriction, in many cases, of torture and capital punishment. Gustav III of Sweden . A composition committee was actually formed, but it proved illusory from the first: the patriotism of neither faction was sufficient for the smallest act of self-denial. Kraus was present at the ball where Gustav was shot. Gustav III. On the whole, Gustav cannot be said to have been well educated, but he read widely; there was scarcely a French author of his day with whose works he was not intimately acquainted. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. At ten o'clock on 19 August, Gustav mounted his horse and rode to the arsenal. With many of them he maintained a lifelong correspondence. I dare, then, to appeal to You, by everything that is holy in this world, to postpone this damnable ball, to such times as are more positive for Your present as well as coming benefit...[18], To dare any possible assassins, the King went out into an open box facing the opera stage. In 1792 he was mortally wounded by a gunshot in the lower back during a masquerade ball as part of an aristocratic-parliamentary coup attempt, but managed to assume command and quell the uprising before succumbing to sepsis 13 days later, a period during which he received apologies from many of his political enemies. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gustav-III. She also wrote plays, stories, and memoirs. Capitalizing on the powerful anti-aristocratic passions thus aroused, Gustav summoned a Riksdag early in 1789, at which he put through an Act of Union and Security on 17 February 1789 with the backing of the three lower estates. etc. Even his most hostile teachers were amazed by his combination of natural gifts. The much-praised Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was severely curtailed, however, by amendments in 1774 and 1792, effectively extinguishing independent media.[2]. The Enlightenment Mid 1700’s Note Key: If the writing is in black WRITE IT DOWN!!! Gustavus III. A new opera house was built in 1775 and inaugurated in 1782, connected to the Stockholm Palace by the Norrbro bridge. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. The philosophes The concept originated during the Enlightenment period in the 18th and into the early 19th centuries. This is regarded as the greatest naval victory ever achieved by the Swedish Navy. For all his gentleness, he guarded the royal prerogative fiercely and plainly showed that he would continue to do so. The effort to remedy the widespread corruption that had flourished under the Hats and Caps engaged a considerable share of his time and he even found it necessary to put on trial the entire Göta Hovrätt, the superior court of justice, in Jönköping. In 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture, mining and commerce. Updates? Kraus wrote a funeral cantata and the Symphonie funèbre, which were played at the burial ceremony on 13 April. [11], Professor Erik Lönnroth of the Swedish Academy, who described the assistance provided by Munck, asserted that there is no factual basis for the assumption that Gustav III was homosexual. But in August 1772 he seized effective power of the government and established a new constitution which, replacing that of 1720, increased the crown’s powers at the expense of the Riksdag. The entire revolutionary enterprise was underwritten with loans procured from the French financier Nicolas Beaujon, arranged by the Swedish ambassador to France, Count Creutz. His He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden[1] and Queen Louise Ulrika (a sister of King Frederick the Great of Prussia), and a first cousin of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia by reason of their common descent from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and his wife Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. City: Stockholm, Sweden Gustav III, the eldest son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, was the king of Sweden from 1771 to 1792. Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark, by proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766. He was betrothed to Princess Sophia Magdalene of Denmark when he was five, and married her fifteen years later, in 1766. He was an enlightened despot and a philosophe. Bandits do not like lanterns; there is nothing more serviceable for an assassination than darkness and disguise. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. 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