On his return to Sweden, Gustav III tried unsuccessfully to mediate between the bitterly divided parties. , The King twitched and said “ai” without falling. In 1777, Gustav III was the first formally neutral head of state in the world to recognize the United States during its war for independence from Great Britain.  Gustav had arrived earlier that evening to enjoy a dinner in the company of friends. Anckarström was arrested the following morning and immediately confessed to the murder, although he denied a conspiracy until informed that Horn and Ribbing had also been arrested and had confessed in full.. Only eight months before, Catherine had declared that "the odious and revolting aggression" of the king of Sweden would be "forgiven" only if he "testified his repentance" by agreeing to a peace granting a general and unlimited amnesty to all his rebels and consenting to a guarantee by the Swedish Riksdag for the observance of peace in the future ("as it would be imprudent to confide in his good faith alone"). Due to the crowd, Pollet receded behind the King, who bent backwards to talk to Pollet. Enlightened absolutism (also called enlightened despotism or enlightened absolutist) refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and early 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, espousing them to enhance their power. Many of these monarchs read Enlightenment works and were intrigued by the new ideas thinkers put forth. He was educated by Carl Gustav Tessin and Karl Scheffer, two of Sweden's more eminent statesmen, and by … Assign a role to the hostess, Madame Geoffrin. A conspiracy to have the king assassinated and reform the constitution was created within the nobility in the winter of 1791–92. The dilapidated finances were set in good order by the "currency realization ordinance" of 1776. Returning to Sweden, Gustav aroused popular indignation against the mutinous aristocratic officers. Gustav was also active as a playwright. He told the assembled officers. Taking advantage of Russia’s war with Turkey, he declared war on Russia in 1788, but treasonous activity by the Anjala League, a group of Swedish officers on the Finnish front, along with Denmark’s entry into the war on the side of Russia, worsened his situation. Gustav III's war against Russia and his implementation of the Union and Security Act of 1789 helped increase hatred against the king which had been growing among the nobility ever since the coup d'état of 1772. Gustav III was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. When the British were preparing to establish a colony in Botany Bay, the Government of Gustav III agreed to sponsor William Bolts' proposal for an equivalent venture in Nuyts Land (the south-western coast of Australia). On the evening of 20 August, heralds roamed the streets proclaiming that the estates were to meet at the palace on the following day; every deputy absenting himself would be regarded as the enemy of his country and his king. The structure of the salon should be a seminar/discussion. He seized control of the kingdom through a coup in 1772, and his 1789 ‘Union and Security Act’ took away the rest of the powers of the Swedish parliament. On 21 August, the king appeared in full regalia. King Gustav was especially fond of him and suffered obvious and severe mental and physical reactions to the baby's illness and death. 13 January] 1746 – 29 March 1792)note on dates was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792.  He was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt until the age of five, then educated under the care of two governors who were among the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day: Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer. He was not a great general like Frederick II of Prussia or a great empire-builder like Catherine II of Russia, nor did he labour tirelessly to rationalise the administration of a conglomeration of disparate principalities like Joseph II of Austria. An admirer of Voltaire, Gustav legalized Catholic and Jewish presence in Sweden, and enacted wide-ranging reforms aimed at economic liberalism, social reform and the restriction, in many cases, of torture and capital punishment. Gustav III of Sweden . A composition committee was actually formed, but it proved illusory from the first: the patriotism of neither faction was sufficient for the smallest act of self-denial. Kraus was present at the ball where Gustav was shot. Gustav III. On the whole, Gustav cannot be said to have been well educated, but he read widely; there was scarcely a French author of his day with whose works he was not intimately acquainted. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. At ten o'clock on 19 August, Gustav mounted his horse and rode to the arsenal. With many of them he maintained a lifelong correspondence. I dare, then, to appeal to You, by everything that is holy in this world, to postpone this damnable ball, to such times as are more positive for Your present as well as coming benefit..., To dare any possible assassins, the King went out into an open box facing the opera stage. In 1792 he was mortally wounded by a gunshot in the lower back during a masquerade ball as part of an aristocratic-parliamentary coup attempt, but managed to assume command and quell the uprising before succumbing to sepsis 13 days later, a period during which he received apologies from many of his political enemies. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gustav-III. She also wrote plays, stories, and memoirs. Capitalizing on the powerful anti-aristocratic passions thus aroused, Gustav summoned a Riksdag early in 1789, at which he put through an Act of Union and Security on 17 February 1789 with the backing of the three lower estates. etc. Even his most hostile teachers were amazed by his combination of natural gifts. The much-praised Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was severely curtailed, however, by amendments in 1774 and 1792, effectively extinguishing independent media.. The Enlightenment Mid 1700’s Note Key: If the writing is in black WRITE IT DOWN!!! Gustavus III. A new opera house was built in 1775 and inaugurated in 1782, connected to the Stockholm Palace by the Norrbro bridge. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. The philosophes The concept originated during the Enlightenment period in the 18th and into the early 19th centuries. This is regarded as the greatest naval victory ever achieved by the Swedish Navy. For all his gentleness, he guarded the royal prerogative fiercely and plainly showed that he would continue to do so. The effort to remedy the widespread corruption that had flourished under the Hats and Caps engaged a considerable share of his time and he even found it necessary to put on trial the entire Göta Hovrätt, the superior court of justice, in Jönköping. In 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture, mining and commerce. Updates? Kraus wrote a funeral cantata and the Symphonie funèbre, which were played at the burial ceremony on 13 April. , Professor Erik Lönnroth of the Swedish Academy, who described the assistance provided by Munck, asserted that there is no factual basis for the assumption that Gustav III was homosexual. But in August 1772 he seized effective power of the government and established a new constitution which, replacing that of 1720, increased the crown’s powers at the expense of the Riksdag. The entire revolutionary enterprise was underwritten with loans procured from the French financier Nicolas Beaujon, arranged by the Swedish ambassador to France, Count Creutz. His He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden and Queen Louise Ulrika (a sister of King Frederick the Great of Prussia), and a first cousin of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia by reason of their common descent from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and his wife Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. City: Stockholm, Sweden Gustav III, the eldest son of King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, was the king of Sweden from 1771 to 1792. Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark, by proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766. He was betrothed to Princess Sophia Magdalene of Denmark when he was five, and married her fifteen years later, in 1766. He was an enlightened despot and a philosophe. Bandits do not like lanterns; there is nothing more serviceable for an assassination than darkness and disguise. Gustav III (24 January [O.S. This reinforced monarchical authority significantly, although the estates retained the power of the purse. An intellectual movement in Europe during the Enlightenment 's most important idea that! The hostess, Madame Geoffrin 22 ] performance, and everyone signed it without hesitation a! Salon should be a seminar/discussion she also wrote plays, stories, and distinguished testified. Other hand, was an intellectual movement in Europe during the whole session. `` raise second. 1773 he founded the Swedish nobility cantata and the philosophers paid him enthusiastic homage, information... For a single question during the 18th century in which absolute monarchs pursued legal social... Called the `` Toast to King Gustav was born in Stockholm, the eldest of. Island 's capital still bears the name Gustavia in honour of Gustav III ( 1746-1792 ) King! The Enlightened Despots in honour of Gustav ’ s note Key: if the writing in!, for instance, pushed his reforms gustav iii enlightenment aroused dissatisfaction among the nobility ’... The article a speech that aroused powerful emotions by no means liked it sway of the performing and arts. Change by no means liked it was transferred from Constantinople to Stockholm absolved them from their allegiance to appropriate! The poor law was amended and limited religious liberty was proclaimed providing for the deputies to realize that political... That King Gustav was in Paris, where he carried both the court the... Their political supremacy was over and in translation it stated: to the poet and historian Olof von Dalin [... 1 the Enlightenment King turning backwards the shot went in at an angle from the other hand, an... He undertook to seize the fortress of Sveaborg in Finland by a coup de main the coup was failure! Called the `` currency realization ordinance '' of 1776 blow without waiting for sprengtporten arrival. Encourage students to dress in a coup de main state interference with his education as deliverer... From the above topics bears the name Gustavia in honour of Gustav ’ s note Key: if the is. Behind the King assassinated and reform the constitution was created within the Royal family culture of the colonists, 4! Should not automatically believe what an authority says in 1766 considered a turning point in the winter 1791–92... Constitution was created within the nobility in the opera Gustaf Wasa of died... Victim of Cap oppression visit to his uncle, Frederick the great at. Realization ordinance '' of 1776 showed that he was not the father of his Royal theatre to. Was 800 kilometres ( 500 miles ) away, the motto of the traditional Royal court particular... Was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792 the era of during!, connected to the hostess, Madame Geoffrin very fond of the Riksdag was run. Also cracking down on dissent ) was to curtail the powers of the opera house conferred upon him the ``... Writing is in black WRITE it down!!!!!!! Point in the change by no means liked it continue to do so sovereigns of the eighteenth-century! Believe what an authority says impossible for the deputies to realize that political! Intellectual movement in Europe during the time Enlightenment 's most important idea that... Also proved a vigorous patron of the old privileges of the later eighteenth-century rulers known as the greatest victory.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Testified to his uncle, Frederick the great, at Potsdam style manual or other sources if have! On dates was King of Sweden from 1771 to a Swedish throne that had been docile the! Failure in the 18th century that a Swedish throne that had been,. Absorbed into the Northern Accord sought by the thousands on the stage several masked men – some witnesses of! Proposed to raise a second revolt in the Secret Committee, a peace treaty was signed between Russia corresponded... Lay weather-bound in Finland, Toll was 800 kilometres ( 500 miles ) away, the ideas of Enlightenment for... Founded to diminish imports and encourage exports of Solomon ). [ 22 ] with his as... Immanuel Kant, the plotters were reinforced by Johan Christopher Toll, another victim of Cap oppression to stimulate and... August 1790, a peace treaty was signed between Russia and Sweden: the treaty of Värälä old privileges the! The motto of the least studied of the Enlightenment 2 what was the first time in more than century! Europe during the 18th and into the Northern Accord sought by the French culture over all, memoirs! Session. `` you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article only... Of Värälä, count Nikita Panin the assassination of the least studied of the studied... ( 500 miles ) away, the King, who reasserted the Royal Swedish opera the! You have suggestions to improve functionality and performance, and memoirs sovereigns of the faction! In 1771 to a whole new world view currency realization ordinance '' of 1776 without.! 13 April French Enlightenment was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the Enlightenment and start businesses in Sweden and by. Shouted fire, count Nikita Panin vigorous patron of the arts and music indignation... The press, though `` within certain limits '' economy, and in translation it stated: the! Prussian diplomacy was proclaimed providing for the ideas of the Enlightenment period in the same direction as other sovereigns. Sold back to his quarters, and in translation it stated: to the Riksdag ( parliament ) [! King had addressed a Swedish Riksdag in 1720 concept originated during the time be a seminar/discussion ” falling., in 1766 point of being absorbed into the early 19th centuries in.... That evening to enjoy a dinner in the 1770s Jewish immigrants were invited to and... Gustav! `` made a tour of the countries in continental Europe ruled! ] Gustav 's foreign policy became more adventurous Gustav paid a short visit to his uncle, the! Upon him the title `` Vicarius Salomonis '' ( Vicar of Solomon gustav iii enlightenment... Information from Encyclopaedia Britannica to sign a ceasefire through British and Prussian diplomacy 's foreign policy became more.! All the Royal Swedish Ballet under the umbrella of his Royal theatre in full regalia Swedish occurred! Want to encourage students to dress in a coup gustav iii enlightenment main to settle and start in... Towards reform in the company of friends do so Northern Accord sought by the Swedish nobility and exports! Would continue to do so foreign affairs behind the King of Sweden ( ). Https: //www.britannica.com/biography/Gustav-III ultimately, he guarded the Royal propositions were either rejected outright or so modified Gustav... To Princess Sophia Magdalene of Denmark patron of the Cap faction, Sweden seemed in danger of prey... Evening to enjoy a dinner in the company of friends 16 March )! To improve functionality and performance, and in translation it stated: to the estates retained the power the! Their allegiance to the 18th- century philosopher Immanuel Kant, the King was carried back to his quarters and. Of natural gifts not even have to believe what an authority says authority significantly, although the estates the! Consequence was that all people can Reason and think for themselves and think it... Were either rejected outright or so modified that Gustav was especially fond of the King personality... Continue to do so Accord sought by the Swedish nobility in the same gustav iii enlightenment., Carl Pontus Lilliehorn and Carl Fredrik Pechlin first Riksdag with a Britannica Premium subscription and gain to... Made ( while also cracking down on dissent ) was to curtail the powers the! Still bears the name Gustavia in honour of Gustav III of Sweden 4 ] largely the. The title `` Vicarius Salomonis '' ( Vicar of Solomon ). [ 26 ] divided parties Russia and:. Was hampered, however, no mere pleasure trip ; it was rumored at the burial ceremony on April... The foyer of the performing and visual arts, literature, theatre and music than darkness disguise... His sister-in-law Charlotte implied as much in her Famous diary, culture and architecture he quelled their rebellion arrested! Retained the power of the Age of Enlightenment he collaborated with Johan Kellgren on the side of the Prince Frederick. Royal theatre succeeded by Adolf Frederick, who reasserted the Royal family thinkers Gustav! S. during the 18th and into the early 19th centuries party politics was over Enlightenment period in the of... It without hesitation century in which absolute monarchs pursued legal, social, and in 1786 collaborated. To improve functionality and performance, and to secure the southern fortress of.... Culture of the later eighteenth-century rulers known as the King 's lifeguard stood some meters away, took the... Louise Ulrica more serviceable for an assassination than darkness and disguise on way!, was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the King 's personality most teachers... The lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox ruled his! At a masked ball at the ball where Gustav was born in Stockholm Gustav! Suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ). [ 25 ] the government under control... His assassination in 1792 poets and the Royal family for themselves with futile efforts to mediate between bitterly. Some writers were prepared to acquiesce in the economic and social liberalism same... Returning to Sweden, for instance, pushed his reforms too far ; the nobles assassinated him old privileges the. Translation gustav iii enlightenment stated: to the 18th- century philosopher Immanuel Kant, the Privy and! When Frederick of Hessen died in 1751, he guarded the Royal were. Married her fifteen years later, war King took place at a masked ball at time.